Using the Cognitive Apprenticeship Model with a Chat Tool to Enhance Online Collaborative Learning

  • Mónica Rodríguez-Bonces Pearson
  • Kris Ortíz SENA
Keywords: Chat, Cognitive Apprenticeship Model, Modeling, Articulation, Online Collaborative Learning, Scaffolding


In Colombia, many institutions are in the firm quest of virtual learning environments to improve instruction, and making the most of online tools is clearly linked to offering quality learning. Thus, the purpose of this action research was to identify how the Cognitive Apprenticeship Model enhances online collaborative learning by using a chat tool. To describe the effectiveness of this model, five of its teaching methods were implemented in an eight-week period over one semester. Twelve beginning online English students enrolled in Colombia’s national vocational and technical training center participated in the study. Data was collected from surveys, chat transcripts, interviews and checklists, and analyzed through content analysis. Results reveal that modeling, coaching, scaffolding, exploration, and reflection may be implemented in a chatroom, developing a sense of collaboration. Learners also moved from guided instruction (modeling) to more independent learning (articulation), assuming the roles of experts. In conclusion, the six teaching methods of the Cognitive Apprenticeship Method enhance online collaborative learning not only because students work together to reach a common goal, but also because they can support each other’s learning through synchronous interactions when using a chatroom for this purpose.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Mónica Rodríguez-Bonces, Pearson
Mónica Rodríguez-Bonces holds a PhD in Regional and Economic Integration and Development; in the area of Education with emphasis in Curriculum Development and Bilingual Education. She holds an MA in Applied Linguistics and a BA in Spanish and Languages. Monica was a school teacher in the USA where she was named teacher of the year. She has been a department chair, academic dean, research director, graduate and undergraduate professor and also an international academic consultant. Monica is currently a research tutor at the Universidad de la Sabana and Academic Coordinator at Pearson.
Kris Ortíz, SENA
Kris Evelin Ortiz Ordoñez holds an BA in English and French. She also holds a Graduate Diploma in TESOL and an MA in English Language Teaching. Kris is a professor at University de Nariño and an English and French online tutor for the National Training Service SENA.


Antenos-Conforti, E. (2009). Microblogging on twitter: Social networking in intermediate Italian classes. In L. Lomicka & G. Lord (Eds.), The next generation: Social networking and online collaboration in foreign language learning (Chapter 4). San Marcos, Tx: CALICO. Beldarrain, Y. (2006). Distance education trends: Integrating new technologies to foster student interaction and collaboration. Distance Education, 27(2), 139-153. Brandes, G.M., & Boskic, N. (2008). Eportfolios: From description to analysis. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(2), 1-17. Brindley, J., Walti, C., & Blaschke, L. (2009). Creating effective collaborative learning groups in an online environment. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 3(10), . Chiong, R., & Jovanovic, J. (2012). Collaborative learning in online study groups: An evolutionary game theory perspective. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 11, 81-101. Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Newman, S. E. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the craft of reading, writing and mathematics (Technical Report No. 403). Champaign, IL: Center for the Study of Reading, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Dennen, v. P., and Burner, K. J. (2008). The cognitive apprenticeship model in educational practice. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. van Merriënboer, & M. P. Driscoll. Handbook of research on educational communications and technology. (pp. 425-439). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum. Dudeney, G. (2007). The internet and the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Enkenberg, J. (2001). Instructional design and emerging teaching models in higher education. Computers in Human Behavior, 17(56), 495-506. Espitia, M. & Cruz, C. (2013). Peer feedback and online interaction: A case study. Ikala: Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura, 18(2), 131-151. Kear, K. & Donelan, H. (2016). Assessing online collaborative work. In: ALT-C Annual Conference, 2016, 6th - 8th September, 2016, University of Warwick, UK.

Kim, E., Park, S., & Baek, S. (2011). Twitter and implications for its use in EFL learning. Multimedia-Assisted Language Learning, 14(2), 113-137. Laal, M., & Ghodsi, S. M. (2012). Benefits of collaborative learning. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 31, 486-490. Liu, T. C. (2005). Web-based Cognitive Apprenticeship Model for improving pre-service teachers’ performances and attitudes towards instructional planning: Design and field experiment. Educational Technology & Society, 8(2), 136-149. Mayes, R., Luebeck, J., Ku, H. Y., Akarasriworn, C., & Korkmaz, O. (2011). Themes and strategies for transformative online instruction: A review of literature and practice. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 12(3), 151-166. Palloff, R. M., & Pratt, K. (2005). Collaborating online: Learning together in community. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Palloff, R., & Pratt, K. (2007). Building online learning communities: Effective strategies for the virtual classroom (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Picciano, A. G. (2002). Blended learning implication for growth and access. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 10(3), 95-102. Popovici, D. (2012). The role of reflection in online learning. (Weblog comment). Retrieved from: http://poppins-upsydaisy.blogspot. com/2012/01/role-of-reflection-in-online-learning.html Richardson, W. (2006). Blogs, wikis, podcasts, and other powerful web tools for classrooms. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Ritchie, J., & Spencer, E. (1994). Qualitative data analysis for applied policy research. In A. Bryman, & R. G. Burgess (Eds.), Analyzing qualitative data (pp. 25-47). London: Routledge. Rourke, L., Anderson, T., D. R., Garrison & Archer, W. (2001). Assessing social presence in asynchronous text-based computer conferencing. Journal of Distance Education, 14(2), 50-71. Russell, G. M., & Kelly, N. H. (2002). Research as interacting dialogic processes: Implications for reflectivity. Forum Qualitative Social Research, 3(3). Shackelford, J. L., & Maxwell, M. (2012). Contribution of learnerinstructor interaction to sense of community in graduate online education. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 8(4), 248-260.

Schweizer, H., Whipp, J., & Hayslett, C. (2002). Quality control in online courses: Using a social constructivist framework. Computers in the Schools, 19(3/4), 143-158. Siemens, G., et al. (2002). Interaction. E-Learning Course. October 8, 2002. Retrieved from: Interaction.htm So, J. & Brush, T. A. (2008). Student perceptions of collaborative learning, social presence and satisfaction in a blended learning environment: Relationships and critical factors. Computers & Education, 51(1), 318-336. Warschauer, M., & Meskill, C. (2000). Technology and second language learning. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. West, J. A., & West, M. L. (2008). Using wikis for online collaboration: The power of the read-write web. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

How to Cite
Rodríguez-Bonces, M., & Ortíz, K. (2016). Using the Cognitive Apprenticeship Model with a Chat Tool to Enhance Online Collaborative Learning. GiST Education and Learning Research Journal, (13), 166-185.