Break the Negative Feedback Chains: Future Teachers Speak Up
This study examines future teachers’ theoretical reflections on Critical Incidents and how these link to Costa Rica’s English teaching system. Participants included 30 senior college students from an English teaching program. Using narrative research techniques, the authors have concluded that: (1) spaces for reflection must be created in EFL so that students’ voices are heard; (2) both instruction and assessment need to be tackled not from the native speaker angle but from the learner language perspective; and (3) because mistakes are both inherent to foreign language learning and an indicator of language development, more tolerance to learner errors needs to be exercised. The study proves relevant for language pedagogy and Applied Linguistics (AL) since it paves the way for further research, opens room for reflection and dialogue, and enhances our understanding of the issue at stake from a future-teacher standpoint.
Abaya, R. (2014). Corrective feedback in English Language Teaching and Learning: Which Way to Go? 10 (2), 5-12. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b3ce/846ab0561c5d1c5d3baff6fed463b4fa3bb0.pdf
Balgopal, M. M., & Montplaisir, L. M. (2011). Meaning making: What reflective essays reveal about biology students' conceptions about natural selection. Instructional Science, 39 (2), 137–169. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23882852?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Chang M. & Lin M. (2014). The Effect of Reflective Learning E-journals on Reading Comprehension and Communication in Language Learning. Computers and Education, 71, 124-132.
Cisero, C. A. (2006). Does Reflective Journal Writing Improve Course Performance? College Teaching, 54 (2), 231–236. https://www.jstor.org/stable/27559272?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Corbally, J. E. (1956). The Critical Incident Technique in Educational Research. Educational Research Bulletin, 35 (3), 57-62.
Dey, Ian (1993). Qualitative Data Analysis: A User-friendly Guide for Social Sciences. London and New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.
Eiriksson, S. (1997). Preservice Teachers Perceived Constraints of Teaching Science in the Elementary Classroom. Journal of Elementary Science Education, 9(2), 18–27. https://www.jstor.org/stable/43155662?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Fallas, C., & Dillard, E. (2015). Professors’ and Students’ Conflicting Views about Translanguaging in the EFL Classroom: Dismantling the Monolingual Bias. Revista de Lenguas Modernas, 23, 301-328. http://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/rlm/article/download/22355/22512
Fallas, C. (2016). Challenging the Monolingual Bias in EFL Programs: Towards a Bilingual Approach to L2 Learning. Revista de Lenguas Modernas, 24, 249-366. http://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/rlm/article/download/24627/25259
Farrell, T. (2013). Critical Incident Analysis through Narrative Practice: A Case Study. Iranian Journal of language Teaching Research, 1(1), 79 – 89. Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1127432.pdf
Farrell, T. C. (2008). Critical incidents in ELT initial teacher training. ELT Journal: English Language Teaching Journal, 62(1), 3-10. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccm072
Freeman, D. (1998). Doing Teacher Research: From Inquiry to Understanding. Pacific Grove: Heinle & Heinle.
Gay, L.R., Mills, G.E., & Airasian, P. (2009). Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Applications. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
Gorlewski, J., & Greene, K. (2011). Research for the Classroom: The Power of Reflective Writing. The English Journal, 100 (4), 90–93. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23047788
Graham, J. (1997). Pedagogical Growth of Two Student Teachers in Art as Revealed in their Journal Entries Reflecting Critical Incidents in the Classroom. Visual Arts Research, 23 (1), 1–30. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20715891
Josefson, J. (2005). Don't Argue, Reflect! Reflections on Introducing Reflective Writing into Political Science Courses. PS: Political Science and Politics, 38 (4), 763–767. http://www.jstor.org/stable/30044366
Kalman, C., Aulls, M. W., Rohar, S., & Godley, J. (2008). Students' Perceptions of Reflective Writing as a Tool for Exploring an Introductory Textbook. Journal of College Science Teaching, 37 (4), 74–81. http://www.jstor.org/stable/42992781
Khandelwal, K. (2009). Effective Teaching Behaviors in the College Classroom: A Critical Incident Technique from Students’ Perspective. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 21 (3), 299–309. http://www.isetl.org/ijtlhe/pdf/IJTLHE597.pdf
Khandelwal, K. A. (2009). Effective Teaching Behaviors in the College Classroom: A Critical Incident Technique from Students' Perspective. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 21 (3), 299-309.
Lang, H. G., Foster, S., Gustina, D., Mowl, G., & Liu, Y. (1996). Motivational Factors in Learning American Sign
Language. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 1 (3), 202–212. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23802936
Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N. (1990). Focus-on-Form and Corrective Feedback in Communicative Language Teaching: Effects on Second Language Learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12, 429-448.
May, S. (2014). The Multilingual Turn: Implications for SLA, TESOL and Bilingual Education. New York: Routledge.
Merriam, S. B., & Tisdell, E. J. (2016). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Mlynarczyk, R. W. (2006). Personal and Academic Writing: Revisiting the Debate. Journal of Basic Writing, 25 (1), 4–25. https://www.jstor.org/stable/43444074?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Morey, A. I., Nakazawa, K., Colvin, C. (1997). Japanese and American Student Teacher Voices: A Comparative Study of Critical Incidents. Peabody Journal of Education, 72 (1), 203–214. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1493268?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Purcell, D. (2013). Sociology, Teaching, and Reflective Practice: Using Writing to Improve. Teaching Sociology, 41 (1), 5–19. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41725576?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Rutherford, J. S., Flin, R., & Irwin, A. (2015). The non-technical skills used by anaesthetic technicians in critical incidents reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring System between 2002 and 2008. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 43 (4), 512-517.
Ryan, M. (2011). Improving reflective writing in higher education: a social semiotic perspective. Teaching in Higher Education, 16(1), 99-111. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2010.507311
Schulz, C. M., Krautheim, V., Hackemann, A., Kreuzer, M., Kochs, E. F., & Wagner, K. J. (2016). Situation awareness errors in anesthesia and critical care in 200 cases of a critical incident reporting system. BMC Anesthesiology, 161-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12871-016-0172-7
Sevilla, Henry, & Gamboa, Roy. (2017). Critical Incidents, Reflective Writing, and Future Teachers’ Professional Identities. Revista de Lenguas Modernas, 26, 233-255. https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/rlm/article/view/29971
Ramsay, S., Barker, M., & Jones, E.. (1999). Academic Adjustment and Learning Processes: a comparison of international and local students in first-year university. Higher Education Research and Development. https://doi.org/10.1080/0729436990180110
Tripp, D. (1993). Critical Incidents in Teaching: Developing Professional Judgement. London: Routledge.
Walker, J. (2015). Perspectives: Using Critical Incidents to Understand ESL Student Satisfaction. TESL Canada Journal, 32 (2), 95-111.
Copyright (c) 2019 GiST Education and Learning Research Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.